Bargarh district of Orissa in India was considered as the rice bowl of Orissa. This district is on the bay of the river Mahanadi, the largest river of Orissa. All benefits of irrigation are enjoyed by this particular district. Since the farmers get irrigation facilities they increased the number of crops from once to twice and even three times in some cases. Some farmers even diversified from usual paddy production to vegetables.
Whether they produce paddy or vegetables they use chemical fertilizers in order (i) to earn more profit or (ii) if the farmer is a share cropper he had to pay the share of the original landlord like other share cropper. The real problem started from the second case in particular. The largest dam on the river Mahanadi is the Hirakud Dam. One of the main objectives of this dam is irrigation of the periphery area. Bargarh district is the largest beneficiary of this dam. However traditional farmers or of the view, if electricity is generated from water nothing is left for agriculture. It is like taking butter out of milk. So they were discouraged to do farming with irrigation water.
To cope with the situation the Government of Orissa invited some agriculturists from the neighboring state Andhra Pradesh. These farmers adopted modern techniques of farming. They in order to extract the largest profits applied all chemical fertilizers. As a result their productivity increased as compared to the limited traditional farmers. Now there is a competition among the traditional farmers and the following the suit of the outside farmers the traditional farmers applied also chemical fertilizers on their land. The irrigated area disbursed the chemical fertilizers to all the land in the downstream.
Because of the chemical fertilizers the short-run productivity increased but in the long-run it decreased the output.
It is now a concern how to increase the productivity?
Added to this problem is the problem of farmer's suicide. The suicide may be due to non-repayment of loans as taken by the farmers from different sources. So it is warranted that appropriate and suitable government policies may be formulated to take care of this social problem.